Molecular biology discoveries have changed the world as we knew it and have helped the development of medicine and sustaining the research of scientists, doctors and educators. Since last 60 years, when the DNA was discovered, a revolution has started in biological science. There are a lot of important discoveries in this area that have helped bring the modern science era.
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Before the modern science era, it was supposed that DNA was the responsible molecule for mediating genetic information. But only then the scientists’ beliefs were confirmed. After a few years of this discovery, it was confirmed that the DNA is a double helix with anti parallel nucleotide chains and specific base pairings. By finding out the structure of the DNA, it became easier to crack the genetic code and provide solutions for other mysteries.
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Another one of the most important discoveries in molecular biology was the existence of RNA which is also a polymer of nucleotides like the DNA. Their key differences consist in the type of pentose sugar, the number of strands present and the composition of nitrogenous bases. RNA is actually the messenger between protein and DNA.
8. In vitro protein translation
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This discovery in molecular biology was made in 1961 when Heinrich Matthaei and Marshall Nirenberg demonstrated that it is possible. It has a lot of applications, from localization of mutations through synthesis of truncated gene products, rapid identification of gene products to incorporating modified or unnatural amino acids for functional studies and protein folding studies
7. Nucleic acid sequence
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Modern science era came with the decoding of the nucleic acid sequence. This term represents a succession of letters that shows the order of nucleotides within a DNA or RNA molecule. Due to the fact that DNA nucleic acids are normally linear polymers using the sense strand is equal to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. The nucleic acid sequence is the primary structure.
6. Cracking the genetic code
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After years of studies and research for new discoveries in molecular biology Robert William Holley, Marshall Warren Nirenberg and Har Gobind Khorana have managed to crack the genetic code. They found out how a 4 letter code can be translated into a 20 letter alphabet of amino acids in order to build up the proteins. RNA is the one that translates DNA to protein.
5. Recombinant DNA
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Recombinant DNA is also a part of the modern science era. It represents the process of taking a piece from a DNA and combining it whit another strand. Scientist observed that if they take and combine two or more strands from a DNA, they can create a new one. The most common situation is the combination of two different DNA from two different organisms.
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Discoveries in molecular biology have come so far to cloning. A clone represents an organism with and identical DNA, a genetic copy. For example, natural clones are identical twins or artificial clones can be made in the lab. On the other hand, it is possible to clone only a certain gene by isolating it and make copies.
3. Gene synthesis and sequencing
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During the fast development of molecular biology, synthetic genes have begun to be commercialized. This synthetic biology method is used to create genes in the lab but it is different from molecular cloning of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) where the user doesn’t need to start with preexisting DNA sequences.
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This modern science era technique is used to amplify a single or a few copies of a DNA piece across several magnitude levels this resulting in millions of copies of a certain DNA sequence. This tool is easy to use and cheap in order to amplify a certain segment of the DNA that can lead to monitoring or diagnosing genetic diseases. This way, doctors and specialists can study the function of a targeted sequence of DNA.
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Insulin is a protein produced by beta cells from pancreatic islets or by Brockmann body in some teleost fish. This peptide hormone has helped molecular biology to treat diabetes due to its notable effects over the carbohydrates, protein and fats metabolism. This way glucose is absorbed in blood and driven away to liver, skeletal muscle cells and fat.
Centuries of discoveries in molecular biology have changed the course of medical treatments, research and diagnosis forever. Gene therapy is the most controversial and research segment of modern science era. There are a lot of clinical and medical therapies based on this theory and molecular medicine plays an important role in understanding actions, regulations and formations of different cells in order to discover new diagnosis disease and new drugs.