A political ideology is a term which roofs all ideas and principles of a certain movement. It defines goals and methods how to achieve them. Social and political scientists usually speak about five major political ideologies – anarchism, absolutism, liberalism, conservatism and socialism. Of course, each of these ideologies has many sub-groups and also intersections with others. The two main areas which a political ideology covers are the form of government and the economic system. Sometimes, ideology is substituted by a one-purpose strategy, such a movement can hardly compete with well-established ideologies in a long term. The following list of political ideologies below contains some of the most influential political ideologies, some of which were prominent in the past and some of which are popular today in the different corners of the world.
Image Credit: Medias Info
10. Individualist Anarchism
Image Credit: YouTube
In general, anarchist movement is focusing on the individual and want to suppress any of the external forms of political power. Individualist anarchism goes beyond most of other thought schools of anarchism and wants to rule-off all the influence of social rules, groups of interest and ideologies.
9. Anarchist Communism
Image Credit: Red Bubble
Anarchist communism is an ideology which tends to refuse the capitalism, private property, wage labor and welcomes direct democracy and joint ownership of all production means. It also doesn´t reject personal property. While it can resemble the communism, one should realize the major difference between these ideologies which lays in the absolute refusal of any form of the state power by anarchist communism. This ideology origins can be traced as far as to the times of the French revolution. Although its supporters are not very active in these days, it deserves to be written in this list of political ideologies.
8. Liberal Conservatism
Image Credit: Charlotte Vaughan Coyle
Although liberal conservatism may sound like a contradiction in terms, it is, in fact, one of the most effective political ideologies advocated by a significant part of the Republican Party in the United States or Conservative Party in Great Britain. It combines the support for civil rights and economic freedom in combination with the conservative stance on some important social issues.
7. National Conservatism
Image Credit: Badge Pig
Today, national conservatism is one of the most influential political ideologies, especially in Europe but also in many other countries including the United States. It strongly accents the element of national, ethnic and cultural identity. In today´s Europe, it is strongly connected with anti-immigration policies and skepticism towards the European Union. In its mainstream, this ideology however distances itself clearly from nationalism and far-right.
Image Credit: Brutally Honest
Environmentalism is another of philosophies which turned to some of the most influential political ideologies of today´s world. Environmentalists put emphasis on the environmental protection and place the issues like climate change or animal rights on top of their political agenda.
Image Credit: Youtube
Communism played an important role of one of the two most influential political ideologies of the 20th century. However, after it lost the cold war to the liberal democracy connected with capitalism, only a few countries still adopt communism as their main political philosophy. The ultimate goal of this ideology is the society which has the common ownership of all means of production and which is not divided into the social classes. However, the communism of the 20th century was tightly connected to the tyranny and brutality of a small group of elites of the communist parties.
Image Credit: The Week
In several countries after the First world War, fascism turned out to be one of the most effective political ideologies. It is the radical authoritarian philosophy with a strong accent to nationalism. Supporters of fascism want to mobilize the state and its people for the armed conflicts to come and call for the duty of persisting the hard times without doubting the strong totalitarian leader. There are many differents sub-types of fascism of which the nazism became the most infamous. Some people also warn that today´s society in many (not only) western countries is turning dangerously close to the fascism again.
Image Credit: Crisis Magazine
In the 20th century, classical liberalism became one of the most influential political ideologies in the West. It combines a strong emphasis on civil rights altogether with economic freedoms under the roof of representative democracy. Today, however, liberalism must defend itself against the rising of the popularity of more authoritative forms of governing.
Image Credit: Reference
Theocracy is the form of government in which the source of all power is a deity. For a modern westerner, theocracy is quite an uncommon form of government as there is none except the tiny state of Vatican. However, in certain civilizational areas, it is strongly preferred by some groups, including the radical ones. An effort to create a Caliphate by some fundamentalist Muslim groups has strong influence even to a global politics.
Image Credit: Ozean Media
In certain circles, libertarianism is considered to be one of the most effective political ideologies. It is based on an effort to assure the maximum level of a freedom of choice for individuals. It wants to dissolve many political and social institutions but unlike certain forms anarchism, libertarianism recognizes the need for the existence of central government, though a small one.
This short list of political ideologies is not a complete one, its goal was to introduce some of the most important philosophies that shape our world today. If you like to read about politics, why not to read our list of Top 10 Political Frauds in History.